어릴적에 Basic, C 언어 공부를 했지만 실무를 시작하면서 Java를 처음 쓰기 시작했었다. 이전의 언어와는 다르게 Java는 프로그래밍의 편리성을 가져다 주었고 이미 고전적으로 고민해야 했던 많은 구현단의 이슈들을 강력한 라이브러리로 해결해 주었다. 게다가 이런것을 속성과정으로 가르치는 학원도 나왔고 나 역시 그런 학원 중 한곳에서 열심히 Java를 배웠었다.
Java 이후에 Delphi, C, Python , C++ 을 거치면서 왜 포인터 개념이 있는 C,C++ 같은 언어를 해볼 필요성이 있는지 알게되었고 그렇게 하다보니 자연스럽게 머신상의 컴퓨터 구조에 대해서 배웠고, 많은 관련 분야 지식을 섭렵하는 계기가 되었다.
그래서 새로운 언어를 배우는것이 중요하다고 하는가 보다. (생각의 폭이 넓어진다는 이면에..)
이렇게 Top->Down으로 언어를 배웠고 그런 언어 이면에서 CS(computer science)관련된 부분이 얼마나 실무와 관련이 많은지 차츰 알게 되었다. 그렇게 하다가 대학원에 가게 되었지만,…
Java, Delphi, Pyhon -> C, C++, D
이런식으로 언어를 배워나간거 같다. 쓰기 쉬운 언어부터 어려운 언어까지 말이다.
그 배경은 아무래도 퍼포먼스 이슈때문인거 같다. 반드시 이 부분은 C로 써야 될 부분 등등 그런 부분때문에 접근을 하게 된 듯 하다. python에서 C임베딩 문제 등등
이렇게 나는 언어 학습의 중요성을 피부로 체험해 왔다.
New York University의 Computer Science 교수 두분이 아래와 같은 제목으로 굉장히 고무적인 글을 작성했다.
Computer Science Education: Where Are the Software Engineers of Tomorrow?
(위 링크가 오늘 열리지 않는데 보이지 않으면 아래 글을 보길 바란다.)
대학에서 커리큘럼상 Java를 첫 언어로 선택하는게 잘못되었다는게 주된 내용이다. Java옹호자 분들께서는 이 말만 들으시고 발끈하지 마시고 왜 교육계나 산업계에서 이렇게 생각하는지 이유를 보면 수긍을 하시리라 생각된다.
[#M_구글 캐시 내용 |less..|
Computer Science Education: Where Are the Software Engineers of Tomorrow?
Dr. Robert B.K. Dewar,
Dr. Edmond Schonberg,
is our view that Computer Science (CS) education is neglecting basic
skills, in particular in the areas of programming and formal methods.
We consider that the general adoption of Java as a first programming
language is in part responsible for this decline. We examine briefly
the set of programming skills that should be part of every software
is all about programming! Over the last few years we have noticed
worrisome trends in CS education. The following represents a summary of
- Mathematics requirements in CS programs are shrinking.
development of programming skills in several languages is giving way to
cookbook approaches using large libraries and special-purpose packages.
resulting set of skills is insufficient for today’s software industry
(in particular for safety and security purposes) and, unfortunately,
matches well what the outsourcing industry can offer. We are training
easily replaceable professionals.
trends are visible in the latest curriculum recommendations from the
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). Curriculum 2005 does not
mention mathematical prerequisites at all, and it mentions only one
course in the theory of programming languages .
have seen these developments from both sides: As faculty members at New
York University for decades, we have regretted the introduction of Java
as a first language of instruction for most computer science majors. We
have seen how this choice has weakened the formation of our students,
as reflected in their performance in systems and architecture courses.
As founders of a company that specializes in Ada programming tools for
mission-critical systems, we find it harder to recruit qualified
applicants who have the right foundational skills. We want to advocate
a more rigorous formation, in which formal methods are introduced early
on, and programming languages play a central role in CS education.
Formal Methods and Software Construction
techniques for proving the correctness of programs were an extremely
active subject of research 20 years ago. However, the methods (and the
hardware) of the time prevented these techniques from becoming
widespread, and as a result they are more or less ignored by most CS
programs. This is unfortunate because the techniques have evolved to
the point that they can be used in large-scale systems and can
contribute substantially to the reliability of these systems. A case in
point is the use of SPARK in the re-engineering of the ground-based air
traffic control system in the United Kingdom (see a description of
iFACTS – Interim Future Area Control Tools Support, at
<www.nats.co.uk/article/90>). SPARK is a subset of Ada augmented
with assertions that allow the designer to prove important properties
of a program: termination, absence of run-time exceptions, finite
memory usage, etc. . It is obvious that this kind of design and
analysis methodology (dubbed Correctness by Construction) will add
substantially to the reliability of a system whose design has involved
SPARK from the beginning. However, PRAXIS, the company that developed
SPARK and which is designing iFACTS, finds it hard to recruit people
with the required mathematical competence (and this is present even in
the United Kingdom, where formal methods are more widely taught and
used than in the United States).
formal approach to which CS students need exposure is model checking
and linear temporal logic for the design of concurrent systems. For a
modern discussion of the topic, which is central to mission-critical
software, see .
area of computer science which we find neglected is the study of
floating-point computations. At New York University, a course in
numerical methods and floating-point computing used to be required, but
this requirement was dropped many years ago, and now very few students
take this course. The topic is vital to all scientific and engineering
software and is semantically delicate. One would imagine that it would
be a required part of all courses in scientific computing, but these
often take MatLab to be the universal programming tool and ignore the
The Pitfalls of Java as a First Programming Language
of its popularity in the context of Web applications and the ease with
which beginners can produce graphical programs, Java has become the
most widely used language in introductory programming courses. We
consider this to be a misguided attempt to make programming more fun,
perhaps in reaction to the drop in CS enrollments that followed the
dot-com bust. What we observed at New York University is that the Java
programming courses did not prepare our students for the first course
in systems, much less for more advanced ones. Students found it hard to
write programs that did not have a graphic interface, had no feeling
for the relationship between the source program and what the hardware
would actually do, and (most damaging) did not understand the semantics
of pointers at all, which made the use of C in systems programming very
us propose the following principle: The irresistible beauty of
programming consists in the reduction of complex formal processes to a
very small set of primitive operations. Java, instead of exposing this
beauty, encourages the programmer to approach problem-solving like a
plumber in a hardware store: by rummaging through a multitude of
drawers (i.e. packages) we will end up finding some gadget (i.e. class)
that does roughly what we want. How it does it is not interesting! The
result is a student who knows how to put a simple program together, but
does not know how to program. A further pitfall of the early use of
Java libraries and frameworks is that it is impossible for the student
to develop a sense of the run-time cost of what is written because it
is extremely hard to know what any method call will eventually execute.
A lucid analysis of the problem is presented in .
are seeing some backlash to this approach. For example, Bjarne
Stroustrup reports from Texas A & M University that the industry is
showing increasing unhappiness with the results of this approach.
Specifically, he notes the following:
have had a lot of complaints about that [the use of Java as a first
programming language] from industry, specifically from AT&T, IBM,
Intel, Bloomberg, NI, Microsoft, Lockheed-Martin, and more. 
He noted in a private discussion on this topic, reporting the following:
[Texas A&M] did [teach Java as the first language]. Then I started
teaching C++ to the electrical engineers and when the EE students
started to out-program the CS students, the CS department switched to
will be interesting to see how many departments follow this trend. At
AdaCore, we are certainly aware of many universities that have adopted
Ada as a first language because of similar concerns.
A Real Programmer Can Write in Any Language (C, Java, Lisp, Ada)
professionals of a certain age will remember the slogan of old-timers
from two generations ago when structured programming became the rage:
Real programmers can write Fortran in any language. The slogan is a
reminder of how thinking habits of programmers are influenced by the
first language they learn and how hard it is to shake these habits if
you do all your programming in a single language. Conversely, we want
to say that a competent programmer is comfortable with a number of
different languages and that the programmer must be able to use the
mental tools favored by one of them, even when programming in another.
For example, the user of an imperative language such as Ada or C++ must
be able to write in a functional style, acquired through practice with
Lisp and ML1, when manipulating recursive structures. This
is one indication of the importance of learning in-depth a number of
different programming languages. What follows summarizes what we think
are the critical contributions that well-established languages make to
the mental tool-set of real programmers. For example, a real programmer
should be able to program inheritance and dynamic dispatching in C,
information hiding in Lisp, tree manipulation libraries in Ada, and
garbage collection in anything but Java. The study of a wide variety of
languages is, thus, indispensable to the well-rounded programmer.
Why C Matters
is the low-level language that everyone must know. It can be seen as a
portable assembly language, and as such it exposes the underlying
machine and forces the student to understand clearly the relationship
between software and hardware. Performance analysis is more
straightforward, because the cost of every software statement is clear.
Finally, compilers (GCC for example) make it easy to examine the
generated assembly code, which is an excellent tool for understanding
machine language and architecture.
Why C++ Matters
brings to C the fundamental concepts of modern software engineering:
encapsulation with classes and namespaces, information hiding through
protected and private data and operations, programming by extension
through virtual methods and derived classes, etc. C++ also pushes
storage management as far as it can go without full-blown garbage
collection, with constructors and destructors.
Why Lisp Matters
programmer must be comfortable with functional programming and with the
important notion of referential transparency. Even though most
programmers find imperative programming more intuitive, they must
recognize that in many contexts that a functional, stateless style is
clear, natural, easy to understand, and efficient to boot.
additional benefit of the practice of Lisp is that the program is
written in what amounts to abstract syntax, namely the internal
representation that most compilers use between parsing and code
generation. Knowing Lisp is thus an excellent preparation for any
software work that involves language processing.
Lisp (at least in its lean Scheme incarnation) is amenable to a very
compact self-definition. Seeing a complete Lisp interpreter written in
Lisp is an intellectual revelation that all computer scientists should
Why Java Matters
our comments on Java as a first or only language, we think that Java
has an important role to play in CS instruction. We will mention only
two aspects of the language that must be part of the real programmer’s
- An understanding of concurrent programming (for which threads provide a basic low-level model).
namely the understanding that a program can be instrumented to examine
its own state and to determine its own behavior in a dynamically
Why Ada Matters
is the language of software engineering par excellence. Even when it is
not the language of instruction in programming courses, it is the
language chosen to teach courses in software engineering. This is
because the notions of strong typing, encapsulation, information
hiding, concurrency, generic programming, inheritance, and so on, are
embodied in specific features of the language. From our experience and
that of our customers, we can say that a real programmer writes Ada in
any language. For example, an Ada programmer accustomed to Ada’s
package model, which strongly separates specification from
implementation, will tend to write C in a style where well-commented
header files act in somewhat the same way as package specs in Ada. The
programmer will include bounds checking and consistency checks when
passing mutable structures between subprograms to mimic the
strong-typing checks that Ada mandates . She will organize
concurrent programs into tasks and protected objects, with well-defined
synchronization and communication mechanisms.
concurrency features of Ada are particularly important in our age of
multi-core architectures. We find it surprising that these
architectures should be presented as a novel challenge to software
design when Ada had well-designed mechanisms for writing safe,
concurrent software 30 years ago.
Programming Languages Are Not the Whole Story
well-rounded CS curriculum will include an advanced course in
programming languages that covers a wide variety of languages, chosen
to broaden the understanding of the programming process, rather than to
build a résumé in perceived hot languages. We are somewhat dismayed to
see the popularity of scripting languages in introductory programming
tools of today for Web applications. Such languages have all the
pedagogical defaults that we ascribe to Java and provide no opportunity
to learn algorithms and performance analysis. Their absence of strong
typing leads to a trial-and-error programming style and prevents
students from acquiring the discipline of separating design of
interfaces from specifications.
teaching the right languages alone is not enough. Students need to be
exposed to the tools to construct large-scale reliable programs, as we
discussed at the start of this article. Topics of relevance are
studying formal specification methods and formal proof methodologies,
as well as gaining an understanding of how high-reliability code is
certified in the real world. When you step into a plane, you are
putting your life in the hands of software which had better be totally
reliable. As a computer scientist, you should have some knowledge of
how this level of reliability is achieved. In this day and age, the
fear of terrorist cyber attacks have given a new urgency to the
building of software that is not only bug free, but is also immune from
malicious attack. Such high-security software relies even more
extensively on formal methodologies, and our students need to be
prepared for this new world.
Taskforce for Computing Curricula. “Computing Curricula 2005: The
Overview Report.” ACM/AIS/ IEEE, 2005 <www.acm.org/education
- Barnes, John. High Integrity Ada: The Spark Approach. Addison-Wesley, 2003.
- Ben-Ari, M. Principles of Concurrent and Distributed Programming. 2nd ed. Addison-Wesley, 2006.
Nick, Gary Sevitsky, and Harini Srinivasan. “The Diary of a Datum: An
Approach to Analyzing Runtime Complexity in Framework-Based
Applications.” Workshop on Library-Centric Software Design,
Object-Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages, and Applications, San
Diego, CA, 2005.
- Stroustrup, Bjarne. Private communication. Aug. 2007.
- Holzmann Gerard J. “The Power of Ten – Rules for Developing Safety Critical Code.” IEEE Computer June 2006: 93-95.
programming language and system names have evolved from acronyms whose
formal spellings are no longer considered applicable to the current
names for which they are readily known. ML, Lisp, GCC, PHP, and SPARK
fall under this category.
시간이 없는 분은 앞부분만 살짝 읽어보면 내용을 잘 알 수 있다.
각 학교에서 시대의 조류에 맞춰(?) Java를 첫 랭귀지로 가르침으로 인해 학생들이 알고리즘을 생각하고 CS상에서 나오는 여러 고질적인 문제들을 해결하는 능력이 없어졌다고 말하고 있다.
(위의 말을 인용하자면 그렇게 어떻게 작동되는지 알지 못하는 라이브러리만 사용하다가 easily replaceable professionals 밖에 되지 않는다고 말한다.)
그리고 “A Real Programmer Can Write in Any Language (C, Java, Lisp, Ada)”라고 말하면서 진정한 프로그래머는 심지어는 C(any language)에서 객체지향을 구현할 줄 알고 가비지 컬렉션을 구현하는 방법 또한 알고 있어야 한다고 말하고 있다. 그렇게 하기 위해서는 Java를 배워 라이브러리를 어떻게 끼워 맞추는지 고민하기 보다는 좀더 컴퓨터 구조나 퍼포먼스 측면을 엿보기 쉬운 언어롤 선택하라고 하고 있다.
왜 이런게 지금에서야 필요 하느냐 하는 부분이 있는데, 이 부분에 대해서는 이제 대용량 이슈가 서서히 시작되는 때가 되었고 다시금 고전적인 퍼포먼스 문제로 생각할 수 밖에 없다고 말하고 있다.
Java보다 더 하게 비평을 하는게 이 문서에서는 스크립팅 랭귀지 인데 자바의 나쁜점은 다 포함하면서 개발자들이 알고리즘이나 퍼포먼스에 대한 더 이상의 고민을 하지 않게 만든다고 말하고있다.
학계의 입장은 전적으로 동의하지만 업계에 있는 나의 입장에서는 개발 접근성이 뛰어난 언어를 선택하는게 개발 퍼포먼스가 좋다는데 이의가
없다. 하지만 그러한 언어에 종속되는건 반드시 경계해야 되고 언어를 쓰는 와중에도 항상 퍼포먼스를 고민하고 개선을 고민할수 있는
소양과 자세는 반드시 필요하리라 생각한다.
자신이 한가지 언어에만 집착하고 있다면 한번쯤 볼 필요가 있는 문서라고 생각한다.
다만 이게 Ada가 최고다 하는 문서로 비춰질 수 있다는게 약간 흠이긴 하지만 일반 개발자든 학교에 다니는 학생이든 뭐가 가장 좋은 출발점이고 진정한 개발자란게 어떤건지 생각해보는 계기가 되었으면 좋겠다.
ps. 말 그대로 어떤 언어든 잘 쓸 자신이 있으면 그게 최고다. 그리고 그 자신감은 경험과 학습에서만이 나올 수 있는 것일 것이다.
ps. 요즘 SICP를 보고 있다. 책에서 쓰인 언어가 Scheme이라서 한동안 실용적인 사용 문제로 인해 구입을 꺼려 했지만 구입해 보고 있는 지금 상당히 만족하고 있다. Lisp 알고리즘 책이라고 감히 말하고 싶고, 예전에 항상 C,C++ 예제로만 이루어진 알고리즘, 자료구조 책을 보다가 다른 언어로 만들어진 책을 보자니 생각보다 매우 재미있고 흥미롭다.